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Linux VPS主机、服务器添加硬盘分区挂载教程

遇到磁盘空间不足的情况,常见的处理方案就是。 1. 进行磁盘垃圾清理,无用的历史数据进行清除,腾出空闲的磁盘空间,2.就是添加新磁盘,把不常用的数据移动到新的磁盘中。

基本步骤:分区——格式化——挂载——写入文件

1、首先用fdisk -l命令查看添加的硬盘名称,可以看到sdb为新增的硬盘

[root@oracle ~]# fdisk -l
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
 
Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0006b59c
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2358    18631680   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2358        2611     2031616   82  Linux swap / Solaris

2、进行分区,输入m查看提示

[root@oracle ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x09f38795.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.
 
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
 
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').
 
Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

 分析:主要参数的解析

  1. 输入 m 显示所有命令列示。

  2. 输入 p 显示硬盘分割情形,打印分区表。

  3. 输入 a 设定硬盘启动区。

  4. 输入 n 创建新的硬盘分割区。

    4.1. 输入 e 硬盘为[延伸]分割区(extend)。

    4.2. 输入 p 硬盘为[主要]分割区(primary)。

  5. 输入 t 改变硬盘分割区属性。

        t:分区系统id号
         L:82:linux swap
        83:linux
        86:NTFS window分区

  6. 输入 d 删除硬盘分割区属性。

  7. 输入 q 结束不存入硬盘分割区属性。

  8. 输入 w 结束并写入硬盘分割区属性

 3、输入n创建新的硬盘分区——输入p创建主分区——输入1设置一个分区——回车——回车(默认全部空间)

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended                                                                   ···扩展分区
   p   primary partition (1-4)                                                    ···主分区
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-2610, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610):
Using default value 2610

 4、输入p查看分区情况——输入w保存退出(一定要w保存不然无效)

Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x09f38795
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        2610    20964793+  83  Linux
 
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

 5、mkfs命令格式化磁盘

[root@oracle ~]# mkfs.ext4  /dev/sdb1
mkfs.ext4: invalid fragment size - /dev/sdb1

 6、mount命令挂载分区

[root@oracle ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /oracle/
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@oracle ~]# df -TH
Filesystem     Type   Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2      ext4    19G   11G  7.3G  60% /
tmpfs          tmpfs  2.1G   74k  2.1G   1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1      ext4   297M   29M  253M  11% /boot
/dev/sdb1       ext4    22G   47M   20G   1% /oracle

 7、添加到/etc/fstab文件下保存退出否则重启后硬盘消失

/dev/sdb1        /oracle          ext4   defaults,noatime        0 0
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